CLEMENTE FIGUERA PATENT (1908) No. 44267 (Spain)
Ministry of Development General Board of agriculture, industry and Commerce. Patents of Invention. Expired. Dossier number 44267. Instruction at the request of D. Clemente Figuera. Representative Mr. Buforn. Presented in the register of the Ministry in the 31st of october of 1908, at 11:55 received in the negotiated in the 2nd of november of 1908.
ELECTRICAL GENERATOR “FIGUERA”
If within a spinning magnetic field we rotate a closed circuit placed at right angles to the lines of force a current will be induced for as long as there is movement , and whose sign will depend on the direction in which the induced circuit moves.
This is the foundation of all magnetic machines and electric dynamos from the primitive, invented by Pixii, France and modified and improved later by Clarke until the current dynamos of today.
The principle where is based this theory, carries the unavoidable need for the movement of the induced circuit or the inductor circuit, and therefore these machines are taken as transformer of mechanical work into electricity.
PRINCIPLE OF THE INVENTION
Watching closely what happens in a Dynamo in motion, is that the turns of the induced circuit approaches and moves away from the magnetic centers of the inductor magnet or electromagnets, and those turns, while spinning, go through sections of the magnetic field of different power, because, while this has its maximum attraction in the center of the core of each electromagnet, this action will weaken as the induced is separated from the center of the electromagnet, to increase again, when the induced is approaching the center of another electromagnet with opposite sign to the first one.
Because we all know that the effects that are manifested when a closed circuit approaches and moves away from a magnetic center are the same as when, this circuit being still and motionless, the magnetic field is increased and reduced in intensity; since any variation , occurring in the flow traversing a circuit is producing electrical induced current, it was considered the possibility of building a machine that would work, not in the principle of movement, as do the current dynamos, but using the principle of increase and decrease, this is the variation of the power of the magnetic field, or the electrical current which produces it.
The voltage from the total current of the current dynamos is the sum of partial induced currents born in each one of the turns of the induced. Therefore it matters little to these induced currents if they were obtained by the turning of the induced, or by the variation of the magnetic flux that runs through them; but in the first case, a greater source of mechanical work than obtained electricity is required, and in the second case, the force necessary to achieve the variation of flux is so insignificant that it can be derived without any inconvenience, from the one supplied by the machine.
Until the present no machine based on this principle has been applied yet to the production of large electrical currents, and which among other advantages, has suppressed any necessity for motion and therefore the force needed to produce it.
In order to privilege the application to the production of large industrial electrical currents, on the principle that says that “there is production of induced electrical current provided that you change in any way the flow of force through the induced circuit,” seems that it is enough with the previously exposed; however, as this application need to materialize in a machine, there is need to describe it in order to see how to carry out a practical application of said principle.
This principle is not new since it is just a consequence of the laws of induction stated by Faraday in the year 1831: what it is new and requested to privilege is the application of this principle to a machine which produces large industrial electrical currents which until now cannot be obtained but transforming mechanical work into electricity.
Let’s therefore make the description of a machine based on the prior principle which is being privileged; but it must be noted, and what is sought is the patent for the application of this principle, that all machines built based on this principle, will be included in the scope of this patent, whatever the form and way that has been used to make the application.
DESCRIPTION OF GENERATOR OF VARIABLE EXCITACION “FIGUERA”
The machine comprises a fixed inductor circuit, consisting of several electromagnets with soft iron cores exercising induction in the induced circuit, also fixed and motionless, composed of several reels or coils, properly placed. As neither of the two circuits spin, there is no need to make them round, nor leave any space between one and the other.
Here what it is constantly changing is the intensity of the excitatory current which drives the electromagnets and this is accomplished using a resistance, through which circulates a proper current, which is taken from one foreign origin into one or more electromagnets, magnetize one or more electromagnets and, while the current is higher or lower the magnetization of the electromagnets is decreasing or increasing and varying, therefore, the intensity of the magnetic field , this is, the flow which crosses the induced circuit.
To fix ideas is convenient to refer to the attached drawing which is no more than a sketch to understand the operation of the machine built using the principle outlined before.
Suppose that electromagnets are represented by rectangles N and S. Between their poles is located the induced circuit represented by the line “y” (small). Let be “R” a resistance that is drawn in an elementary manner to facilitate the comprehension of the entire system, and “+” and “-” the excitatory current which is taken from an external and foreigner generator. The different pieces of the resistance will connect, as seen in the drawing, with the commutator bars embedded in a cylinder of insulating material that does not move; but around it, and always in contact with more than one contact, rotates a brush “O”, which carries the foreign current, revolves. One of the ends of the resistance is connected with electromagnets N, and the other with electromagnets S, half of the terminals of the resistance pieces go to the half of the commutator bars of the cylinder and the other half of these commutator bars are directly connected to the firsts.
The operation of the machine is as follows: it has been said that the brush “O” rotates around the cylinder “G” and always in contact with two of their contacts. When the brush is in touch with contact “1″ the current, which comes from the external generator and passes through the brush and contact “1″, will magnetize electromagnets N to the maximum but will not magnetize the electromagnets S because the whole resistance prevent it. Therefore, first electromagnets are full of current and the second ones are empty. When the brush is in touch with contact “2″ the current won’t entirely go to electromagnets N because it has to pass through part of the resistance; In contrast, some current goes to the electrodes S because it has to overcome less resistance than in the previous case. This same reasoning is applicable to the case in which the brush “O” closes the circuit in each of the different contact until finished those in a semicircle, and begins to operate in the other half, which are directly connected to each other. In short, the resistance makes the function of a distributor of the current because that current not going to excite some electromagnets excites others and so on; it can be said that electrodes N and S works simultaneously and in opposite way because while the first ones are filling up with current, the seconds are emptying and while repeating this effect continuously and orderly a constant variation of the magnetic fields within which is placed the induced circuit can be maintained, without any more complications than the turning of a brush or group of brushes that move circularly around the cylinder “G” powered by the action of a small electrical motor.
As seen in the drawing the current, once that has made its function, returns to the generator where taken; naturally in every revolution of the brush will be a change of sign in the induced current; but a switch will do it continuous if wanted. From this current is derived a small part to excite the machine converting it in self-exciting and to operate the small motor which moves the brush and the switch; the external current supply, this is the feeding current, is removed and the machine continue working without any help indefinitely.
The invention is really new; very daring and above all has huge technical and industrial consequences under all sights, we didn’t ask for privilege of invention until having a machine working based on these principles which gives the practical realization without which these claims will be useless.
ADVANTAGES OF THE ELECTRICAL GENERATOR “FIGUERA”
First. Give completely for free, electrical currents continuous or alternate of any voltage and applicable to:
1. Production of driving force.
2. Production of light.
3. Production of heat.
4. All the previous uses.
Second. No need whatsoever of driving force of any kind nor chemical reactions nor fuel.
Third. Does not need lubrication, only in small amounts.
Fourth. Be so Simple that vigilance that can be overlooked.
Fifth. Does not produce smoke, noise, nor vibration in its operation.
Sixth. Indefinite operational life.
Seventh. Apply to all uses, home management and industrial.
Eighth. Easy of construction.
Ninth. Cheap to produce in the market
The applied patent for 20 years is requested upon a “NEW GENERATOR OF ELECTRICITY, so-called “FIGUERA” of variable excitation, designed to produce electrical currents for industrial applications without using neither driving force, nor chemical reactions. The machine is essentially characterized by two series of electromagnets which form the inductor circuit, between whose poles the reels of the induced are properly placed. Both circuits, remaining motionless, induced and inductor, are able to produce a current induced by the constant variation of the intensity of the magnetic field forcing the excitatory current (coming at first from any external source) to pass through a rotating brush which, in its rotation movement, is placed in communication with the commutator bars or contacts of a ring distributor or cylinder whose contacts are in communication with a resistance whose value varies from a maximum to a minimum and vice versa, according with the commutator bars of the cylinder which operates, and for that reason the resistance is connected to the electromagnets N by one of its side, and the electromagnets S at the other side, in such a way that the excitatory current will be magnetizing successively with more or less strength to the first electromagnets, while, oppositely, will be decreasing or increasing the magnetization in the second ones, determining these variations in intensity of the magnetic field, the production of the current in the induced, current that we can use for any work for the most part, and of which only one small fraction is derived for the actuation of a small electrical motor which make rotate the brush, and another fraction goes to the continuous excitation of the electromagnets, and, therefore, converting the machine in self-exciting, being able to suppress the external power which was used at first to excite the electromagnets. Once the machinery is in motion, no new force is required and the machine will continue in operation indefinitely.
All in accordance with the described and detailed in this report and as represented in the drawings which are attached.
Barcelona, the 30th of October, 1908.
Signed: Constantino de Buforn.