CLEMENTE FIGUERA PATENT (1902) No. 30378 (Spain)
ELECTRICAL GENERATOR FIGUERA – BLASBERG
Since 1833, when, in France, Pixii built the first magneto-electric machine, to the present time, all machines magneto and dynamo-electric that inventors’ knowledge has materialized in the industry are based on the law of induction that says “all magnet which approaches or moves away from a close circuit, produces in it induced currents” In Gramme ring and in the current dynamos, current is produced by induction exerted on the wire of the induced circuits as its coils cut the lines of force created by the excitatory electromagnets, this is, as the induced circuit moves, quickly, inside the magnetic atmosphere which exists between the pole faces of the excitatory electromagnets and the soft iron core of the induced. In order to produce this movement, mechanical force need to be employed in large quantity, because it is necessary to overcome the magnetic attraction between the core and the excitatory electromagnets, attraction which opposes the motion, so the current dynamos are true machines for transforming mechanical work into electricity.
The undersigned, believe that is exactly the same as the coils in the induced cut the lines of force, or that these lines of force cross the induced wire, because not changing, by rotation, the arrangement of the magnetic fields, there is no necessity to move the core, for induction to occur. Leaving still both the induced circuit and the core, it is essential that lines of forces to be born and die, or being removed, which is achieved by making the excitatory current intermittent or alternating in sign.
Current dynamos, come from groups of Clarke machines, and our generator recalls, in its fundamental principle, the Ruhmkorff induction coil. In that machine the induction machine is created by movement of the induced circuit: in the generator, induction occurs because of the intermittencies of the current which magnetize the electromagnets, and in order to achieve these intermittencies or changes in sign, only is required a very small quantity or almost negligible force, we, with our generator, produce the same effects of current dynamos without using any driving force at all.
In the arrangement of the excitatory magnets and the induced, our generator has some analogy with dynamos, but completely differs from them in that, not requiring the use of motive power, is not a transforming apparatus. As much as we take, as a starting point, the fundamental principle that supports the construction of the Ruhmkorff induction coil, our generator is not a cluster of these coils which differs completely. It has the advantage that the soft iron core can be constructed with complete indifference of the induced circuit, allowing the core to be a real group of electromagnets, like the exciters, and covered with a proper wire in order that these electromagnets may develop the biggest attractive force possible, without worrying at all about the conditions that the induced wire must have for the voltage and amperage that is desired. In the winding of this induced wire, within the magnetic fields, are followed the requirements and practices known today in the construction of dynamos, and we refrain from going into further detail, believing it unnecessary.
The inventors, who subscribe, constitute their generator, as follows: Several electromagnets are arranged one in front of one another, with [their]/[its](*) poles of contrary name separated by a small distance. The cores of all these electromagnets are formed in such a way that they will magnetize and demagnetize quickly and not retain any residual magnetism. In the empty space remaining between the pole faces of the electromagnets of these two series, the induced wire passes in one piece, or several, or many. An excitatory current, intermittent, or alternating, actuates all the electromagnets, which are attached or in series, or in parallel, or as required, and in the induced circuit will arise currents comprising, together, the total generator current. That allows suppressing the mechanical force, since there is nothing which needs to be moved. The driving current, or is an independent current, which, if direct, must be interrupted or changed in sign alternately by any known method, or is a part of the total current of the generator, as it is done today in the current dynamos.
Founded on these considerations, Mr. Clemente Figuera and Mr. Pedro Blasberg, in the name and on behalf of the society “Figuera-Blasberg” respectfully requests to be granted final patent of invention for this generator whose form and arrangement are shown in the attached drawings, warning that, in them, and for clarity are sketched only eight electromagnets, or two sets of four excitatory electromagnets in each, and the induced circuit is marked by a thick line of reddish ink, being this way the general arrangement of the appliance, but meaning that you can put more or less electromagnets and in another form or grouping.
The invention for which a patent is applied consists in following note.
Invention of an electric generator without using mechanical force, since nothing moves, which produces the same effects of current dynamo-electric machines thanks to several fixed electromagnets, excited by a discontinuous or alternating current which creates an induction in the motionless induced circuit, placed within the magnetic fields of the excitatory electromagnets.
Barcelona, the 5th of September of 1902
Signed: Clemente Figuera and Pedro Blasberg
(*) Note of the translator: “sus polos” in spanish may be translated into english both as plural “their poles” (referring to the poles of two electromagnets) or as singular “its poles” (referring to the two poles of one electromagnet).