CLEMENTE FIGUERA PATENT (1902) No. 30376 (Spain)
ELECTRICAL MACHINE FIGUERA – BLASBERG
By running a dynamoelectric machine, the inducer electromagnets exert attractive action on the soft iron core, but as it is round, it is not too difficult to rotate it more or less quickly. But, as soon as currents appear in the induced circuit coils, the soft iron core becomes a real magnet and the difficulty to turn it increases extremely.
Everyone knows that the current generated by a dynamo is produced because the induced coils cut the lines of force of the magnets, therefore producing induction, and it is supposed that the force required to move the machine is applied to rotate the induced, so that their coils cut the said lines of force.
The undersigned inventors have been persuaded that this view is not accurate, and they also believe that the horsepower consumed by the generator, for its operation, are only used to rotate the core, and to overcome the force of attraction exerted mutually between the poles of the inducer electromagnets and those on the core, which is nothing more than a magnet. The authors believe that, for the existence of magnetic fields, there is no need to rotate the core, and for achieving the induced coils to cut the lines of force it is only needed that the induced circuit rotates, this is, the coils alone, without the soft iron core. But, as currents appears in the coils, the core becomes a real electromagnet, the undersigned inventors think that the electromagnet must be formed in the likeness of the exciter electromagnets, that is, in the best conditions for this core to become a magnet as powerful as possible while passing the current along the wire coiled on the core.
In the construction of current dynamos the copper wire covering the core must be -necessarily- of a determined length and thickness in order that the induced current will get the desired voltage and amperage, and the mentioned length and thickness of the wire do not allow to coil it around the core in proper conditions to be a good electromagnet.
By contrast, a dynamo built with motionless core and exciter magnets, and just moving or rotating the coils on the induced circuit, may get an electromagnet in the core in the best conditions to obtain, at its poles, a powerful electromagnetism, and independently of this core-electromagnet, the coils in the induced circuit can be built with the copper wire of such required length and thickness in order that the dynamo can get the desired voltage and amperage.
In summary: in the machine that it is requested to have a privilege, the excitatory magnets are constructed as those in the current machines, and in the number, size and desired arrangement. The core consists of a group of as many electromagnets as those of the excitatory side, and the wires in the excitatory electromagnets and core electromagnets disposed in series or parallel or as required for the excitatory current, whose aim is to convert them in powerful magnets and to create the magnetic fields which are formed between the poles of each excitatory electromagnet and its corresponding electromagnet in the core. Both, exciter electromagnets as those in the core, which are also exciters, are terminated by expansions of iron or steel, placing face to face these expansions and disposing them in such a way that in front of a pole of a name there is placed a pole of opposite name. The core is composed of motionless electromagnets around shaft, and nor those magnets neither the exciter ones rotate. The induced circuit formed by wires coiled in a drum type configuration rotates around its axis, inside the magnetic fields, accompanied by a collector and a pulley, so that any motor may put them into movement.
As copper is diamagnetic, the force required to rotate the induced coils will be very small, even taking into account the friction of brushes, air resistance, bearings, and higher or lower attracting electric currents, so that, a relatively weak electric motor, powered by either an independent current, or by a portion of the total current produced by the machine can be used to put the induced circuit into quick rotation movement.
Therefore Mr. Clemente Figuera and Mr. Pedro Blasberg, on name and on behalf of society “Figuera-Blasberg” according to the principles established by the law request respectfully for definitive privilege or patent of invention which is described as:
The inducer or exciter circuit is formed by two series of multiple electromagnets, motionless them all, and conveniently placed so that each pole of a series will be at short distance in front of a pole of opposite name in the other series. In the small separation between the expansions of these magnets the induced coils rotate, dragging, in its turn, the collectors and transmission pulleys. The figure of the attached drawing, which is only theoretical, gives an idea of the arrangement which is requested for privilege. The excitation of the electromagnets is made by either known means, or by combinations thereof.
The object of the patent consists in the following note:
Invention of an electrical machine capable of giving the same effect as the current dynamos, and in which only the induced coils rotate, but not the core which is fixed without movement, and composed of a group of exciter electromagnets which are similar to those in dynamos today in use, so that the motionless exciter circuit is formed by the external electromagnets and by the internal electromagnet placed in the core, and rotating only the induce circuit, with the collector and motion transmission pulleys.
Barcelona on September 5, 1902
Signed: Clemente Figuera and Pedro Blasberg