My interpretation of the 1908 patent
First I want to advice to everyone tha this page contains my own interpretation of the 1908 patent. The literal translations of the patents are available for everyone in order to try to build this generator. Those documents are exactly what Figuera included in his patents. If you do not want to be biased by my opinion, please just read the patents and skip this page.
So far I have not get any good result neither with one or other polarity but I explain next which is my interpretation of the patent text. This is just my own interpretation of the 1908 patent, no. 44267, and I do not want to persuade anyone to believe that this is the real key for the patent to work. It is just my own and personal interpretation according to my study and deep reading of the patents, especially the 1908 patent.
All Figuera patents have one common feature: all his devices are built with two electromagnets located one in front of the other (part “a” and “b” in the picture below) , and an “induced circuit” (part “c”) , as called by Figuera, in the center, between both electromagnets.
My idea is that Figuera did not defined explicitly the real polarity of the electromagnets in his patent of 1908. While he named them as “rectangle N” and “rectangle S” he never told to be North or South. For me it was just a patent notation trick to hide the real polarity. Let´s see how he defined literally the device in the patent document:
In the description of the 1908 patent:
SUPPOSE THAT ELECTROMAGNET ARE
REPRESENTED BY THE RECTANGLES “N” and “S”
In the claims (the part with legal validity):
” The system is characterized by two series of electromagnets which form the inductor circuit. “
Nowhere in the patents are mentioned the words “North” or “South”. Figuera named the electromagnets “rectangle N” and “rectangle S”, as he could have named them as “rectangle A” and “rectangle B”. Figuera got a patent who legally protected the design with configuration North-South, North-North and South-South because he did not state explicitly the real polarity. You may read the patent and at first you may think that he was using for sure the option North-South, but this is only an association done by your brain with the letters “N” and “S”. For me this is the trick to solve this puzzle. Anyway, if you decide to build this system is quite easy to test one possibility or the other. You just have to interchange the electrical connections of the electromagnets to test different polarities.
It is curious that Buforn in his later 5 patents did exactly the same. He just named them “N” and “S” again, in his 5 patents. The very same in his later 5 patents. This reinforce my view that there is something weird, something hidden behind our perception of the letters N and S. We have a mental tendency to associate them with North and South when speaking about magnetism. But patents are a legal documents and they just protect which is really written and described in them, not what our subconscious mind tell us at first sight.
It is also curious that the patent from 1902 no. 30378 mentions that the poles confronted are “of contrary name”. Is it a trick to avoid defining explicitly the polarity in scientific terms?. Or, Is it just a different design to the 1908? For me this is still the main question to know. Take into account that the 1902 patents were sold to a banking union in few days. This could have influenced the contents of those 1902 patents.
For me Figuera did hide the real pole orientation to avoid easy replication of the machine while at the same time getting the protection of device with the patents that he filed.
I think that Figuera really used poles in repulsion to build his generator: similar poles facing each other. The aim was to swing both magnetic fields back and forth. As in any repulsion system the magnetic lines collide in the center and are expelled from the induced core. Those magnetic lines are swung back and forth as consequence of the two unbalanced signals exciting each electromagnet, and during their movement the lines cut the wires of the induced coil and create induction (flux cutting induction). For me the real aim of the device is to create a “virtual motion” of the magnetic lines. I think Figuera tried to emulate the movement of a common generator, but in this case instead of moving any part of the machine he moved the two opposing magnetic fields.
Induction in all generators is always done by flux cutting the wires: it requires relative movement (v) in order that the flux lines cut the induced wires ( E = v·B·Length ). On the other hand, induction in transformers is always done by flux linking two coils: it just requires a changing magnetic field, but does not need movement, nor that the flux lines cut the wire ( E = -A·dB/dt ).
TRANSFORMERS (Flux Linking Induction) : E = -A·dB/dt (Faraday Law)
GENERATORS (Flux Cutting Induction) : E = v·B·Length (Lorentz Force)
Using poles in repulsion in Figuera´s generator induction is done by flux cutting, as in all generators and dynamos. This is not a transformer. All this is explained in deep in the next very important video. You may also download the slides explained in the video:
(If you want to see the video in spanish please click here)
See the slides into an embeded presentation:
In order to get this effect Figuera just needed to excite each electromagnet with a different signal. He used two signals. When one was increasing the other was decreasing. Later, the contrary, when the second signal is increasing the first signal is decreasing. Therefore when one magnetic field is at maximum intensity, the other is at minimum. Later, the contrary: when the second field is at maximum, the first is at minimum. Both signals are changing in strength inversely. They are always above zero, they do not reverse its polarity. Both signals are opposite, and they work in conjunction to get the magnetic lines moving along the induced coil and cutting the induced wires.
See how induction by flux cutting is achieved:
Now instead of moving the coil you just need to move the two magnetic fields back and forth to get flux cutting induction in the central induced wires.
Finally, as a summary, the next image represents the concept of moving the magnetic lines (fields) in order to get flux induction in the wires while keeping the whole system motionless and without any dragging force as in current generators:
Even Figuera in one of his 1902 patents (patent No. 30378) mentioned that instead of moving the coils he wanted the lines of forces to cross the induced wire. This is the essence of this generator:
The magic of the Figuera generator is that makes possible to convert two variable magnetic fields in time in the electromagnets (dB/dt) into a variable magnetic field in space (in the induced coils), as happens in all generators ( emf = v · B · Length ) moving back and forth the magnetic lines, and, therefore creating induction by flux cutting the wires ( by creating a virtual velocity “v” between the magnetic lines and the induced wires).
In the next table you can see a comparison between transformers, generators and the Figuera generator and why the Figuera motionless generator has no Lenz manifestation as the other two:
As a final idea I want to remark that the Lenz effect exists into the Figuera generator. The induced wires while being cut by the magnetic lines are exposed internally to the Lorentz force as in any other system. Thus is why those wires have to be packed tighly to avoid any movement/vibration. But in this case just the massless magnetic lines are moved, so the force to move them is almost null if compared to common generators where the heavy coils are moved. Figuera found a way to create induction by motion (“v”) but without moving any heavy physical part.